Vitamin A, C, deficiency confirmed

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    Vitamin A, C, deficiency confirmed

    For those who are concerned, take a look at this!! Very good web page with lots of pics on what happens when your deficient in a certain vitamin!! Vitamin A deficiency causes KP and vitamin C deficiency causes the looped hairs! It's called corkscrew hair sydrome or something

    http://bob.usuhs.mil/biochem/nutrition/NOTES/

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    DIALUP USERS BEWARE

    Code:
    Ascorbic Acid (vitamin C)
    Biochemical functions promoted: The main biological role of vitamin C appears to be as a reducing agent in a number of important hydroxylation reactions in the body. 
    
    • Ascorbic acid is required for the hydroxylation of proline and lysine on the polypeptide chains of protocollagen. Without the hydroxylation of these amino acids, the protocollagen is unable to properly cross-link into normal collagen fibrils. Collagen is the major connective tissue in the body. It is also a component of the organic matrix for bone tissue as well as a component of the ground substance surrounding capillary walls.
    • Vitamin C is required for the hydroxylation reactions in the synthesis of steroids, and epinephrine. The concentration of ascorbic acid is high in the adrenal gland especially during periods of stress.
    • Ascorbic acid acts as a reducing agent in non-enzymatic reactions: e.g., it aids in absorption of iron by reducing it to ferrous state in the stomach, it spares vitamin A, vitamin E and some B vitamins by protecting them from oxidation, and it enhances the utilization of folic acid by aiding the conversion of folate to tetrahydrofolate.
    Deficiency: http://bob.usuhs.mil/biochem/images/petichie-icon.jpeg Most of the symptoms of vitamin C deficiency can be directly related to its metabolic roles. Symptoms of mild vitamin C deficiency include ecchymoses (large areas of bleeding into the skin), corkscrew hairs, http://bob.usuhs.mil/biochem/nutrition/images/wein-2-5-icon.jpeg and the formation of petechiae (small pinpoint hemorrhages in the skin) due to increased capillary fragility. These symptoms can be explained by weaken collagen fibrils. Severe deficiency results in scurvy. http://bob.usuhs.mil/biochem/nutrition/images/wein-13-2-icon.jpeg Scurvy itself is associated with decreased wound healing, osteoporosis, hemorrhaging, bleeding into the skin (petichiae and ecchymoses), anemia, and friable bleeding gums with loosened teeth (gingivitis). A child with scurvy may prefer to lie on its back with legs and arms layed out in the so called ``frog position'' because of pain in joints. The osteoporosis results from the inability to maintain organic matrix of the bone followed by demineralization. The anemia results from the extensive hemorrhaging coupled with defects in iron absorption and folate activation. Sources and requirement: Fruits, especially citrus fruits, tomatoes and green vegetables are rich sources of vitamin C. An intake of 30 mg per day is sufficient to replenish the quantity of ascorbic acid metabolized daily. An intake of 45 mg per day maintains an adequate body pool. There is some uncertainty over the need for vitamin C in periods of stress and trauma. Smoking has been shown to cause lower serum vitamin C. Aspirin appears to block uptake of vitamin C by platelets. Oral contraceptives and corticosteriods also lower serum levels of vitamin C. The possibility of marginal C deficiencies should be considered with any patient under these circumstances. Large doses of vitamin C (0.5 to 5 gm per day) have been claimed to reduce the discomfort caused by the common cold. The claim is substantiated in a few double-blind studies. The number of colds experienced by vitamin C supplemented groups appears to be the same as the control groups, but the severity and the duration of the colds were significantly decreased. Megadoses of vitamin C have not been shown to be harmful except for the potential of formation of oxalate kidney stones in predisposed individuals. Oxalate is a major metabolite of ascorbic acid.
    [img]http://bob.usuhs.mil/biochem/images/petichie.jpg[/img]
    http://bob.usuhs.mil/biochem/images/petichie.jpg
    Most of the symptoms of vitamin C deficiency can be directly related to its metabolic roles. Symptoms of mild vitamin C deficiency include ecchymoses (large areas of bleeding into the skin), corkscrew hairs, and the formation of petechiae (small pinpoint hemorrhages in the skin) due to increased capillary fragility. These symptoms can be explained by weaken collagen fibrils. Severe deficiency results in scurvy.
    Ascorbic Acid (vitamin C)
    Biochemical functions promoted: The main biological role of vitamin C appears to be as a reducing agent in a number of important hydroxylation reactions in the body.
    • Ascorbic acid is required for the hydroxylation of proline and lysine on the polypeptide chains of protocollagen. Without the hydroxylation of these amino acids, the protocollagen is unable to properly cross-link into normal collagen fibrils. Collagen is the major connective tissue in the body. It is also a component of the organic matrix for bone tissue as well as a component of the ground substance surrounding capillary walls.
    • Vitamin C is required for the hydroxylation reactions in the synthesis of steroids, and epinephrine. The concentration of ascorbic acid is high in the adrenal gland especially during periods of stress.
    • Ascorbic acid acts as a reducing agent in non-enzymatic reactions: e.g., it aids in absorption of iron by reducing it to ferrous state in the stomach, it spares vitamin A, vitamin E and some B vitamins by protecting them from oxidation, and it enhances the utilization of folic acid by aiding the conversion of folate to tetrahydrofolate.
    Deficiency: http://bob.usuhs.mil/biochem/images/petichie-icon.jpeg Most of the symptoms of vitamin C deficiency can be directly related to its metabolic roles. Symptoms of mild vitamin C deficiency include ecchymoses (large areas of bleeding into the skin), corkscrew hairs, http://bob.usuhs.mil/biochem/nutrition/images/wein-2-5-icon.jpeg and the formation of petechiae (small pinpoint hemorrhages in the skin) due to increased capillary fragility. These symptoms can be explained by weaken collagen fibrils. Severe deficiency results in scurvy. http://bob.usuhs.mil/biochem/nutrition/images/wein-13-2-icon.jpeg Scurvy itself is associated with decreased wound healing, osteoporosis, hemorrhaging, bleeding into the skin (petichiae and ecchymoses), anemia, and friable bleeding gums with loosened teeth (gingivitis). A child with scurvy may prefer to lie on its back with legs and arms layed out in the so called ``frog position'' because of pain in joints. The osteoporosis results from the inability to maintain organic matrix of the bone followed by demineralization. The anemia results from the extensive hemorrhaging coupled with defects in iron absorption and folate activation.

    Sources and requirement: Fruits, especially citrus fruits, tomatoes and green vegetables are rich sources of vitamin C.

    An intake of 30 mg per day is sufficient to replenish the quantity of ascorbic acid metabolized daily. An intake of 45 mg per day maintains an adequate body pool. There is some uncertainty over the need for vitamin C in periods of stress and trauma. Smoking has been shown to cause lower serum vitamin C. Aspirin appears to block uptake of vitamin C by platelets. Oral contraceptives and corticosteriods also lower serum levels of vitamin C. The possibility of marginal C deficiencies should be considered with any patient under these circumstances. Large doses of vitamin C (0.5 to 5 gm per day) have been claimed to reduce the discomfort caused by the common cold. The claim is substantiated in a few double-blind studies. The number of colds experienced by vitamin C supplemented groups appears to be the same as the control groups, but the severity and the duration of the colds were significantly decreased. Megadoses of vitamin C have not been shown to be harmful except for the potential of formation of oxalate kidney stones in predisposed individuals. Oxalate is a major metabolite of ascorbic acid.

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    Fat-Soluble Vitamins



    Vitamin A

    The active forms of vitamin A are retinol, retinaldehyde, and retinoic acid. These substances are synthesized by plants as the more complex carotenoids which is cleaved to retinol by most animals and stored in the liver as retinol palmitate.


    Biochemical functions promoted: Only in the case of vision is the biochemistry well understood. Vitamin A becomes reversibly associated with the visual pigments in the D11-cis-retinal form. When light strikes the retina, a number of biochemical changes take place, resulting in a nerve impulse, conversion of the retinal to the all-trans form, and dissociation from the visual pigment. Regeneration of more visual pigment requires isomerization back to the D11-cis-form. Some of this material can be regenerated in a slow process in the retina and by other pathways involving retinal reductase in the eye and retinal isomerase in the liver. Other important metabolic roles have been identified to require vitamin A; they are bone development and cell growth, reproduction, health of epithelial cells, and maintaining stability of cell membranes. Carotenoids appear to lower the risk of getting cancer.

    Deficiency: http://bob.usuhs.mil/biochem/nutriti...-6-1-icon.jpeg http://bob.usuhs.mil/biochem/nutriti...sis-1-icon.jpg

    Since vitamin A is stored in the liver, deficiencies of this vitamin can develop only over prolonged periods of inadequate uptake. Mild vitamin A deficiencies are characterized by follicular hyperkeratosis (rough keratinized skin resembling "goosebumps"), anemia and increased susceptibility to infection.



    http://bob.usuhs.mil/biochem/nutriti...ind-1-icon.jpg http://bob.usuhs.mil/biochem/nutriti...ind-2-icon.jpg

    Night blindness is also an early symptom.



    http://bob.usuhs.mil/biochem/nutriti...cia-1-icon.jpg

    Severe vitamin A deficiency leads to progressive keratinization of the cornea of the eye. This condition is known as Bitot's spots in its mildest form (localized spots), xerosis conjunctivae in moderately severe form and xerophthalmia in its most advanced stages. In final stages, infection usually sets in, with resulting hemorrhaging of the eye and permanent loss of vision.

    Absorption and Metabolism: Both vitamin A and carotenoids are fat soluble. Preformed vitamin A in food is usually present as retinyl palmitate which has to be hydrolyzed by pancreatic enzymes before absorption by the intestinal mucosa cell as retinol. The carotenoids are absorbed intact in the presence of bile salts and are converted to retinol by a cleavage enzyme in the intestinal mucosa cell. The retinol is then esterified with palmitic acid in the intestinal mucosa cells, and the retinyl palmitate is then incorporated in chylomicrons and carried into the blood stream via the thoracic duct. Retinyl palmitate is stored in the liver.

    Figure below - Mechanism of vitamin A absorption and hormone action. Key: RBP, retinol binding protein; CRBP, cellular retinol binding protein; CRABP, cellular retinoic acid binding protein; Rx, retinoid receptor; RAR, retinol (or retinoid) receptor; IBRP, retinoid binding protein in retina; CM, chylomicrons; RApoE, receptor for CM remnants; TTR, transthyretin; +, stimulates transcription.


    Sources and requirement: Preformed vitamin A is available only in animal products which include liver, kidney, cream, butter, and egg yolk. The major dietary sources of the provitamin is yellow and green vegetables and fruits.

    Recommended allowance for vitamin A is 1000 retinol equivalents for adult males and 800 retinol units for adult females. One retinol equivalent is defined to be equal to 1 mg of retinol or 6 mg of b- carotene or 12 mg of other provitamin A carotenoids. Requirements are different for infants, children, pregnant and lactating women.

    Doses of 15,000 to 50,000 retinol equivalents per day of preformed vitamin A over a period of months or a single dose of 350,000 IU have been proved to be toxic for children and adults. The usual symptoms include headache, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, scaly dermatitis, enlargement of liver and spleen, and hydrocephalus (abnormal accumulation of fluid in the cranial cavity, results in enlargement of the head, atrophy of the brain and convulsion). Excessive intake of carotenes (carotenoids) does not appear to be harmful even though it may result in deposition of yellow pigments in the soles of the feet, palms of the hands, and nasolabial folds.

    Because of the toxicity that can be induced by high concentrations of vitamin A, the FDA has imposed a ceiling of 2000 retinol equivalents or l0,000 IU (international units) on the amount of vitamin A that can be included in a multivitamin preparation available without prescription.
    Deficiency:

    Since vitamin A is stored in the liver, deficiencies of this vitamin can develop only over prolonged periods of inadequate uptake. Mild vitamin A deficiencies are characterized by follicular hyperkeratosis (rough keratinized skin resembling "goosebumps"), anemia and increased susceptibility to infection.



    Night blindness is also an early symptom.

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    What about zinc? and some fatty acids? enzymes?

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    Re: Vitamin A, C, deficiency confirmed

    the vitamin A deficency is considered only a link in theory, not definate.
    anyway here is a experiment I performed a few months back to solve it, read:

    http://www.keratosispilaris.org/kprf...lood-test.html

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    Re: Vitamin A, C, deficiency confirmed

    Anonymous,

    This is interesting because Vit. A, C and zinc are all part of the supplement regimen to strengthen the immune system, something I think a lot of us overlook in our quest for clear skin.

    kebod

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    Re: Vitamin A, C, deficiency confirmed

    My dermatologist told me about a lack of Vitamin A being a possible cause of KP, but he said that even if i were to take more Vitamin A through supplements it wouldn't go do much. He said I would have to take overdoses of Vitamin A which ends up being toxic to the body and certainly not recommended.

    Anyone care to take massive amounts of Vitamin A and let me know what happens ?

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    Re: Vitamin A, C, deficiency confirmed

    Jaslar,

    I don't know if this is considered massive or not, but I have been taking 25,000 IU of Vit. A (fish oil) for almost a year, along with other supplements, to strengthen my immune system (part of my program to help combat candida). The only thing I have noticed is that for the first time in my life, I did not have any colds this past winter. My husband was the sickest I have ever seen him, with the flu, and didn't leave the house for two weeks. Despite being exposed to his coughs and sneezes, I never got it. I attribute this to a stonger immune system.

    kebod

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    Re: Vitamin A, C, deficiency confirmed

    Jason - just for clarification - RE: your thread you linked, vitamin A is only toxic in a certain form, retinoids. carrot juice, though it may turn you yellow when you drink in excess, will provide beta-carotene which your body then converts as needed.

    Hypervitaminosis A - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

    "Hypervitaminosis A occurs when the maximum limit for liver stores of retinoids is exceeded. The excess vitamin A enters the circulation causing systemic toxicity. Vitamin A in the form of betacarotene is only selectively converted into retinoids, and hence does not cause toxicity. Although hypervitaminosis A can occur when large amounts of liver are regularly consumed, most cases of vitamin A toxicity result from an excess intake of vitamin A in the form of vitamin supplements. Toxic symptoms can also arise after consuming very large amounts of preformed vitamin A over a short period of time. (See Polar-bear liver below.)"

    yum... polar bear liver... (actually, I'd probably like it, poor polar bears...)

    So basically, retinyl palmitate in vitamin supplements is hard on your lover, I mean liver, to the point of toxicity possibly. In my blog I've linked to a study where vitmin A supplements are linked to higher mortality. Note that the researchers were hepatology groups (liver Drs.)

    My multi vite has about 2,666 IUs of A as retinyl palmitate. I have switched to taking a half a vite one day and a full the next day and occasionally forgetting a day. BUT I take spirulina with my EFA supplements. A full day's dose of spirulina (which I don't always remember) is 11,250 IUs, 100% as beta-carotene. the spirulina also keeps my allergic reactions down.
    Effects of a Spirulina-based dietary supplement on...[J Med Food. 2005] - PubMed Result

    So you may consider me one of those taking high vitamin A in a way. I have slow but fairly steady progress with my skin. In my case, it may be as much that I try to do things to even out my hormone fluctuations (middle aged woman) as well as doing things to support my skin specifically. More details in my member journal... - bd

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    Re: Vitamin A, C, deficiency confirmed

    Quote Originally Posted by jason1901 View Post
    the vitamin A deficency is considered only a link in theory, not definate.
    anyway here is a experiment I performed a few months back to solve it, read:

    http://www.keratosispilaris.org/kprf...lood-test.html
    this is an abstract of an old article that i think is still relevant. it says at the bottom that some people can be vitamin A deficient even though their blood test
    shows normal levels of vitamin A



    Diseases of the Skin - Annual Review of Medicine, 2(1):311 - First Page Image
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    Re: Vitamin A, C, deficiency confirmed

    Quote Originally Posted by kebod View Post
    Jaslar,

    I don't know if this is considered massive or not, but I have been taking 25,000 IU of Vit. A (fish oil) for almost a year, along with other supplements, to strengthen my immune system (part of my program to help combat candida). The only thing I have noticed is that for the first time in my life, I did not have any colds this past winter. My husband was the sickest I have ever seen him, with the flu, and didn't leave the house for two weeks. Despite being exposed to his coughs and sneezes, I never got it. I attribute this to a stonger immune system.

    kebod
    I was told that around 10000 IU was already quite high. That means you're taking more than double the amount, that's pretty crazy! Well, i guess your body isn't missing any Vitamin A then .

    While i was at the dermatologist, he also mentioned that i should take cold/medium temperature showers. Guess i'll have to try it out for a little while and see if it helps.

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    Re: Vitamin A, C, deficiency confirmed

    Jas,

    I have taken two types of Vit. A -- first, fish liver oil and now, natural beta carotene (both Now brands). My lover, I mean my liver, doesn't seem to have a problem. This amount is recommended by the anti-candida program I am following.

    BD has just lessened my ignorance (with her last post) in this department, and I now know that beta carotene is a non-toxic source of Vit. A.

    As I'm a pescatarian, it will be easy to avoid polar bear liver.

    kebod

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    Re: Vitamin A, C, deficiency confirmed

    If KP is due to vitamin deficiencies, it's probably due to our inability to absorb/utilize it. (I'm pretty sure of this, because I ate very little and was very thin back in the days and didn't have KP then) Therefore, supplementation alone is prob not gonna do squat, until our body is functioning properly again.

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    Re: Vitamin A, C, deficiency confirmed

    Quote Originally Posted by Hope4thebest View Post
    If KP is due to vitamin deficiencies, it's probably due to our inability to absorb/utilize it. (I'm pretty sure of this, because I ate very little and was very thin back in the days and didn't have KP then) Therefore, supplementation alone is prob not gonna do squat, until our body is functioning properly again.

    i agree with you 100%

    and check this out. this article talks about how our bodies can't absorb man made vitamins.
    this would explain why people aren't seeing results from taking supplements.



    Vitamin B Deficiencies: How to Handle Vitamin B Deficiencies


    and if any ones interested i found this to be mind blowing

    IS CANCER MERELY A VITAMIN DEFICIENCY DISEASE
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    Re: Vitamin A, C, deficiency confirmed

    also,

    Many plant-based eaters are under the impression that they can obtain all the vitamin A that they need from plant foods that contain carotenoids, particularly beta carotene found in foods like spinach, sweet potatoes, and carrots.
    It's true that some carotenoids like beta carotene can be converted to vitamin A in your body once they make it into your blood. What you may not know is that carotenoids are not always absorbed efficiently into your blood.
    Given that vitamin A deficiency is one of the most common nutritional deficiencies in the world and is also a leading cause of death in young children, it's critical for the general public to know that relying solely on carotenoids in plant foods for daily vitamin A needs may lead to any of the following health problems over


    Healthy Foods that Contain Vitamin A
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